what are websites, hosting, domains

What is a Website?

A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server.


Domain names are used to identify one or more IP addresses. Domain names are used in URLs to identify particular Web pages. For example, in the URL http://www.google.com/, the domain name is google and .com is extension.

Different Types of Domains

  • TLD – Top Level Domains

These are at the highest level in the DNS structure of the Internet. There are several different types of TLD’s, being:

  • ccTLD – country code Top Level Domains

Two letter domains established for geographical locations; for example; .in signifies India.

  • gTLD – generic Top Level Domain

The best known generic TLD’s include .com, .net, .biz, .org and .info – these can be registered by anyone, anywhere in the world.

  • IDN ccTLD – internationalised country code top-level domains

A top-level name with a specially encoded format that allows it to be displayed in a non-Latin character set (i.e. special characters). China’s ccTLD is .CN and its IDN ccTLD is .中国

Below the TLD’s are various other levels:

  1. Second level: Directly below a TLD in the DNS hierarchy, e.g. .gov.nic
  2. Third level: Directly below a second level in the DNS hierarchy. e.g. .gov.nic.in

The difference between second and third level can be a little confusing. For example, hotmail.com is considered a second level domain, but hotmail.com.au would be classed as a third level.


A subdomain is a domain that is part of a larger domain; the only domain that is not also a subdomain is the root domain. For example, blog.example.com and shop.example.com are subdomains of the example.com domain, which in turn is a subdomain of the com top-level domain (TLD).

Web Hosting

A web host, or web hosting service provider, is a business that provides the technologies and services needed for the website or webpage to be viewed in the Internet. Websites are hosted, or stored, on special computers called servers. Before making any website live, you will need to purchase web hosting from web hosting provider companies.

DNS (Domain Name Server)

The Domain Name System (DNS) is the phonebook of the Internet. Humans access information online through domain names, like nytimes.com or espn.com. Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so browsers can load Internet resources.


CPanel or Hosting Account is the account where all the website file, databases are created and stored. If you are making any changes to the website, you are making changes in the CPanel hosting file structure.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for transmitting files between computers on the Internet over TCP/IP connections. A user typically needs to log on to the FTP server, although some servers make some or all of their content available without login, also known as anonymous FTP.

CMS (Content Management System)

A content management system (CMS) is a software application or set of related programs that are used to create and manage digital content. CMSes are typically used for enterprise content management (ECM) and web content management (WCM).

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